Saturday, April 29, 2017

Scotch Yoke Valve Actuators

Scotch Yoke Pneumatic Valve Actuator
Courtesy Flowserve - Automax
A Scotch yoke is a mechanical linkage arrangement that converts linear motion into rotational motion. A common usage of the mechanism found in modern industry is valve actuators for quarter turn valves with high torque requirements. These applications would emerge most frequently in chemical and oil and gas industrial installations.

Quarter turn valves, such and ball, plug, or butterfly valves, only require a 90 degree rotation from their fully closed to fully open positions. In this case, the Scotch yoke is not used to produce continuous rotating motion, as it may in some engine applications. For the valve actuation case, the Scotch yoke functions much like a hand on a lever. The pneumatic variants use air pressure to drive the slider in one direction until a preset stop position is reached. Usually, a spring provides a counterforce that will drive the valve to a desired fail-safe stop position in the absence of air pressure. Other combinations of driving force and fail-safe operation are available to suit differing application needs.
Diagrammatic representation of Scotch yoke valve actuator
Illustration excerpted from Automax RG Standard Pneumatic Valve Actuator IOM 
with text added
The drive assembly consists essentially of a slider, a pin, and the yoke. The slider is moved laterally by whatever power sources are appropriate for the unit (pneumatic, hydraulic, spring, hand wheel, etc.). The pin is affixed to the slider and extends through a slot in the yoke. One end of the yoke is mounted to the valve shaft. As the slider is driven through is range of motion, the pin moves with the slider and forces movement of the yoke. This movement of the yoke translates into rotational force on the valve shaft and the repositioning of the valve trim.

Selecting and configuring the right actuator and valve for any application benefits from consultation and cooperation among the process engineers and valve automation specialists. Share your process valve and automation challenges with experienced professionals, combining your own process knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to produce an effective solution.

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Introduction to Flowmeters

Electromagnetic Flow Meter
Courtesy Azbil N.A.
Flowmeters measure the rate or quantity of moving fluids, in most cases liquid or gas, in an open channel or closed conduit. There are two basic flow measuring systems: those which produce volumetric flow measurements and those delivering a weight or mass based measurement. These two systems, required in many industries such as power, chemical, and water, can be integrated into existing or new installations. For successful integration, the flow measurement systems can be installed in one of several methods, depending upon the technology employed by the instrument. For inline installation, fittings that create upstream and downstream connections that allow for flowmeter installation as an integral part of the piping system. Another configuration, direct insertion, will have a probe or assembly that extends into the piping cross section. There are also non-contact instruments that clamp on the exterior surface of the piping and gather measurements through the pipe wall without any contact with the flowing media.

Because they are needed for a variety of uses and industries, there are multiple types of flowmeters classified generally into four main groups: mechanical, inferential, electrical, and other.

Quantity meters, more commonly known as positive displacement meters, mass flowmeters, and fixed restriction variable head type flowmeters all fall beneath the mechanical category. Fixed restriction variable head type flowmeters use different sensors and tubes, such as orifice plates, flow nozzles, and venturi and pitot tubes.

Inferential flowmeters include turbine and target flowmeters, as well as variable area flowmeters also known as rotameters.

Laser doppler anemometers, ultrasonic flowmeters, and electromagnetic flowmeters are all electrical-type flowmeters.

The many application classes throughout the processing industries have led to the development of a wide range of flow measurement technologies and products. Each has its own advantages under certain operating conditions. Sorting through the choices and selecting the best technology for an application can be accomplished by consulting with a process instrumentation specialist. The combination of your own process knowledge and experience with their product application expertise will develop an effective solution.

Tuesday, April 11, 2017

CTi Controltech In-House Capabilities and Solutions for Combustion, Automation, and Instrumentation

CTi Controltech has operated in northern California and Nevada for many years, satisfying customers and building their capabilities into today's top flight provider of equipment and services to industrial and commercial markets. The short piece included below is a synopsis of the company's range of products and services.

Share your combustion, emission, steam, process control, and automation challenges with experts in the field. The combination of your own process knowledge with the expertise at CTi Controltech will produce effective solutions.